Vinegar is a very familiar household product, which has long played an extremely important part in cooking all over the world. But what exactly is vinegar and what are its uses besides cooking?
use (n.) 「使用法」
[ 1 ] In Japan, rice is used to make vinegar, which is a necessary ingredient in making some traditional Japanese dishes. In Korea, they use another native crop, persimmons; in the U.S., apples; and in the Philippines, sugar cane. It is clear that there is a variety of vinegars worldwide.
be used to do「～するために使われる」
←be used to doing「～することに慣れている」
(1) Local vinegar is an unimportant element in traditional dishes.
(2) People in different places make vinegar out of their local products.
(3) Rice vinegar has been made and used by people for a long time.
(4) The word "vinegar" is from an old French word meaning "sour wine."
out of …「…から」
Regarding the process of making vinegar, it is made by allowing air to react with alcohol of some type. This means that the process always begins with a raw material, such as grapes, rice, or barley, that has been converted into alcohol. [ 2 ] The former, allowing it to age naturally, can take weeks or months, or even in an extreme case, as long as 100 years, as in expensive Italian balsamic vinegars. The latter process can take as little as 20 hours. This is made possible by adding air and bacteria to the source liquid.
allow O to do「Oが～することを可能にする」
raw material 「生の材料→原材料」
the former「前者」, the latter「後者」
(1) It takes an extremely long time to make genuine vinegar.
(2) Many crops and recipes are connected to vinegar.
(3) There have traditionally been several ways to make vinegar.
(4) Vinegar can be produced either by a slow or fast process.
The uses of vinegar are as extensive as its source materials. Before refrigerators became common, vinegar was vitally important in preserving food in the form of pickles. Vinegar has also long been important in cleaning and for medical purposes. [ 3 ] to polish surfaces and reduce the pain of insect bites. Clearly, vinegar was an important discovery for ancient civilizations which remains useful even today.
(1) It could have been used
(2) It has been commonly used
(3) It is rarely used
(4) It will not be used
could have done「～したことがありえるだろう」←could do「～することがありえるだろう」
extreme (adj.), extremely (adv.) 発音！
use (n.) 発音！（n.→ユース、v.→ユーズ）
be used to do（ユーズド）、be used to doing（ユースト）
a variety of …
out of …
allow O to do
convert O into …
the former, the latter
add O to …
vital (adj.), vitally (adv.)