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長文センター早稲田

文法

 

センター2010第3問C

Vinegar is a very familiar household product, which has long played an extremely important part in cooking all over the world. But what exactly is vinegar and what are its uses besides cooking?

 

in doing「~する際、~する時」

use (n.) 「使用法」

 

[ 1 ]   In Japan, rice is used to make vinegar, which is a necessary ingredient in making some traditional Japanese dishes. In Korea, they use another native crop, persimmons; in the U.S., apples; and in the Philippines, sugar cane. It is clear that there is a variety of vinegars worldwide. 

 

be used to do「~するために使われる」

 ←be used to doing「~することに慣れている」

in doing「~する際、~する時」

 

(1) Local vinegar is an unimportant element in traditional dishes.

(2) People in different places make vinegar out of their local products.

(3) Rice vinegar has been made and used by people for a long time.

(4) The word "vinegar" is from an old French word meaning "sour wine."

 

out of …「…から」

 

Answer→[1]

 

Regarding the process of making vinegar, it is made by allowing air to react with alcohol of some type. This means that the process always begins with a raw material, such as grapes, rice, or barley, that has been converted into alcohol. [ 2 ] The former, allowing it to age naturally, can take weeks or months, or even in an extreme case, as long as 100 years, as in expensive Italian balsamic vinegars. The latter process can take as little as 20 hours. This is made possible by adding air and bacteria to the source liquid.

 

regarding…「…に関して」

by doing「~することによって」

allow O to do「Oが~することを可能にする」

raw material 「生の材料→原材料」

the former「前者」, the latter「後者」

age (v.)「年をとる」

 

(1) It takes an extremely long time to make genuine vinegar.

(2) Many crops and recipes are connected to vinegar.

(3) There have traditionally been several ways to make vinegar.

(4) Vinegar can be produced either by a slow or fast process.

 

Answer→[2]

 

The uses of vinegar are as extensive as its source materials. Before refrigerators became common, vinegar was vitally important in preserving food in the form of pickles. Vinegar has also long been important in cleaning and for medical purposes.  [ 3 ] to polish surfaces and reduce the pain of insect bites. Clearly, vinegar was an important discovery for ancient civilizations which remains useful even today.

 

(1) It could have been used

(2) It has been commonly used

(3) It is rarely used

(4) It will not be used

 

could have done「~したことがありえるだろう」←could do「~することがありえるだろう」

 

Answer→[3]

 

VOCABULARY

n.→noun名詞、v.→verb動詞、adj.→adjective形容詞、adv.→adverb副詞

 

household

extreme (adj.), extremely (adv.) 発音!

exactly

use (n.) 発音!(n.→ユース、v.→ユーズ)

besides

be used to do(ユーズド)、be used to doing(ユースト)

ingredient発音!

crop

sugar cane

a variety of …

out of …

regarding

allow O to do

by doing

raw material

convert O into …

the former, the latter

age (v.)

add O to …

liquid

genuine 発音!

recipe 発音!

extensive

refrigerator アクセント!

vital (adj.), vitally (adv.)

preserve 発音!

purpose

surface アクセント!

reduce

insect アクセント!

bite (n.)

ancient 発音!

remain C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] (2)

[2] (4)

[3] (2)

Vinegar is a very familiar household product, which has long played an extremely important part in cooking all over the world. But what exactly is vinegar and what are its uses besides cooking?

 

[ 32 ]  In Japan, rice is used to make vinegar, which is a necessary ingredient in making some traditional Japanese dishes. In Korea, they use another native crop, persimmons; in the U.S., apples; and in the Philippines, sugar cane. It is clear that there is a variety of vinegars worldwide. 

 

1) Local vinegar is an unimportant element in traditional dishes.

2) People in different places make vinegar out of their local products.

3) Rice vinegar has been made and used by people for a long time.

4) The word "vinegar" is from an old French word meaning "sour wine."

[1]

 

Regarding the process of making vinegar, it is made by allowing air to react with alcohol of some type. This means that the process always begins with a raw material, such as grapes, rice, or barley, that has been converted into alcohol. [ 33 ] The former, allowing it to age naturally, can take weeks or months, or even in an extreme case, as long as 100 years, as in expensive Italian balsamic vinegars. The latter process can take as little as 20 hours. This is made possible by adding air and bacteria to the source liquid.

 

The uses of vinegar are as extensive as its source materials. Before refrigerators became common, vinegar was vitally important in preserving food in the form of pickles. Vinegar has also long been important in cleaning and to polish surfaces and reduce the pain of for medical purposes. [ 34 ] insect bites. Clearly, vinegar was an important discovery for ancient civilizations which remains useful even today.

 

 

[1] [32] (2)

勉強は「おもしろい」!

コラム

ほとんどの人は受験英語の勉強はつまらない、苦痛に満ちたものだと思っています。先生も「血のにじむような努力を!」と言います(私も先生だから言いますけど、本当に血のにじむような努力してきた先生はとっても少ないし、皆さんは英語の先生と違って英語ばかり勉強しているわけにはいかないですよね)。

 

でも、英語は言葉です。確かに最終的には難しい文章を読めるようにならなければいけませんが、まずはたくさん触れること。そしてたくさん触れるためには少しでも「楽しい」ものの方がいいのです。実際大学入試に出される長文は読んでいて面白いものが多いです。脳科学者の茂木健一郎さんも言っていますが、勉強が「楽しく」なってきたらこっちのものです。最初は面倒くさいかもしれませんが、できるだけ早く「楽しい」領域にみなさんが入れるようお手伝いできればと思います。

 

 

センター試験 1990年 大問5

長文 センター

About fifteen hundred years ago the Japanese imported many aspects of Chinese culture: the writing system, political institutions, and perhaps most important, Buddhism. Buddhist priests were expected to eat only vegetables, and tofu, /made from the soybean/, was a very important food in their diet. When Buddhism was introduced from China, tofu was also brought to Japan.

 

   Tofu developed in different ways in China and Japan. While the Chinese often changed the taste of tofu by mixing it with strongly-flavored vegetables or meat, the Japanese preferred to eat it using only a simple sauce *1 . Even now, traditional Japanese cooking preserves the original delicacy of tofu, though the way (it is served) may change from season to season *2. In summer, for example, it is simply served cold, while in winter it is often eaten as part of a hot dish.

 

  The soybean was introduced to the West in the eighteenth century, but little interest was taken in it; only scientists recognized its high food value. During the Second World War, when meat was in short supply, the U. S. government encouraged the American people to eat soybean products *3. However, they never became very popular and, after the war, interest in them dropped off as the supply of meat became plentiful again.

 

   In recent years, people in the West have become increasingly aware of the dangers of eating too much animal fat, and as a result, they have turned more and more to soybean products. This is mainly because the soybean provides almost the same food value as meat, and /in addition/ is a lot more healthful. Much of the margarine, salad oil, and cooking oil in daily use is now produced from soybean oil. Tofu, /a representative soybean product and originally one of the main foods in the diet of Chinese priests/, is considered to be one of the healthiest foods available to man.

 

Tofu came to Japan together with Buddhism, because | 42 |

1) Buddhist priests ate tofu rather than vegetables. *4

2) it was a very important food in the diet of Buddhist priests.

3) the religion came to Japan together with political institutions.

4) the religion was the most important aspect of Chinese culture.

 

Japanese tofu dishes differ from Chinese tofu dishes in that | 43 | ((in that ...「...という点で、...ということにおいて」

1) the original taste of tofu is preserved in Japanese dishes.

2) they are served the same way throughout the year.

3) they have a better taste than Chinese tofu dishes.

4) they have a greater variety than Chinese tofu dishes.

 

During the Second World War the United States government encouraged the American people to eat soybean products because | 44 |

1) Americans recognized their high food value.

2) little interest was taken in the soybean.

3) meat was less available than before.

4) they were found to taste very good.

 

The reason people in the West have become more and more interested in tofu and other soybean products is that | 45 |

1) eating too much animal fat is considered unhealthy.

2) meat has become too expensive to buy.

3) these products are more readily available.

4) they have become tired of eating meat.

*1:by doing 「~することによって」

*2:change from ... to ... 「...によって変わる」

*3:in short supply「供給不足で」

*4:rather than ... 「...よりむしろ」

新聞 長文

Women Can Read Maps Just As Well As Men, Thank You Very Much

Finally some research to put this sexist theory to rest.
 
Ladies, listen up: Should you find *1 yourself wandering an unknown city with a dude who is questioning your directional abilities, don’t doubt yourself.


A recent small study (published in the journal Psychological Science) found that the longstanding theory (that women have a more difficult time reading *2 maps) isn’t true. At all.

 
Historically, men have performed better than women in studies that tested spatial ability (in other words, looking at a map and figuring out *3 where that would place *4 you in real life). But lead study author Margaret Tarampi and researchers from the University of California-Santa Barbara theorized that social influences have an effect on this outcome: The cultural belief (that women are worse at reading maps) can be seen as a stereotype threat, meaning women believe they’ll be bad at something, so they perform poorly as a result.
 
The researchers also theorized that women perform better at skills that involve a social component. In other words, if reading a map means helping someone else, they might perform better.
 
Tarampi and her team tested both theories on undergraduate students at UCSB across three separate experiments. And, indeed, the results showed that men scored better than women only when the researchers mentioned the stereotype of male superiority before administering the test.
 
When the researchers did not mention it ― and gave a social context for reading the map ― the women’s scores improved across the board. Women also performed better when the test maps simply included human figures, rather than just random objects and landmarks.
 
The first experiment acted as the control group where researchers tested for both social and spatial conditions in men and women. Researchers expressed to the participants that there’s a stereotype that men are better at reading maps than women, and also supplied the participants with two types of maps: One with just objects and landmarks to test for spacial ability and another which also included figures of small people to test for the social element.
 
The second and third experiments featured only women to test for empathy and if having a social aspect would impact score.
 
“When we tell participants that this is a test of perspective-taking and perspective-taking is about empathy, then in that case women perform the same as males,” Tarampi told The Huffington Post. The takeaway, says Tarampi, is that there are cultural stereotypes that exist which can become self-fulfilling prophecies. Men and women are equally as good at reading maps. Period. *5
 
Overall, though, this research may just put previous scientific theories about women’s spatial abilities into *6 context. A false cultural belief that men are better at reading maps, combined with no context for reading the map, results in men performing *7 better than women at the task.
 
So ladies, the next time you struggle to figure out if you should make a left or right at the Louvre (or wherever your next vacation may be), whip out your tourist map with a healthy dose of confidence.
 
And gentlemen, step aside. She’s got this.
 

質問はコメントで

 

*1:←If you should find… 「もし万一...したら」

*2:have a difficult time doing 「~するのに苦労する」

*3:figure out「理解する」

*4:place 「置く」

*5:Period. 「以上」

*6: put O into … 「Oを...に入れる」

*7:men performing → S doing 動名詞の意味上の主語

‘Pokemon Go’ remains popular despite passing heyday of launch 根強い人気のPokemon Go

長文 新聞

 

>日本語は段落ごとの要約です。 

Pokemon Go’ remains popular despite passing heyday of launch
 
PORTLAND, MAINE – Few games have enjoyed *1 both the meteoric rise — and subsequent fall — in *2 popularity as “Pokemon Go.”

ポケモンGOほど人気の乱高下を経験したゲームはないだろう。 

But the game remains profitable, and people are still playing even if they aren’t the same masses that roamed parks last summer with eyes glued to smartphones, looking for *3 elusive virtual monsters to appear right in front of them.

>しかし、まだ儲けは出ている。まだ多くの人がやっている。昨夏のような集団で公園をうろついているプレーヤーは見かけないが。

“It kind of brings people together to have a conversation about these little cartoon characters that we’re all in love with,” said Brian Swain, a sales representative for Rockstar energy drink who has stuck with “Pokemon Go” since it launched last July.

>私たちみんなが大好きなキャラクターについて集まって話すようになったのはポケモンGOのおかげですよ、とBrian Swainは言う。

While past its heyday last summer, when some small businesses and landmarks had complained of *4 disruptive crowds, the game has seen renewed interest *5 after last month’s addition of 80 Pokemon and in-game events set *6 around holidays like Halloween and soon, Easter.

>昨夏の盛り上がりを過ぎたころから、迷惑な集団について苦情が寄せられたが、今では新たな興味関心を引き出している。昨月80のポケモンが追加され、ハロウィンやもうすぐ来るイースターなどの祝日イベントがゲーム内にセットされた。 

The updates addressed *7 complaints about a lack of updates that contributed to a drop in monthly active users, according to app market analyst Apptopia.

>アップデートがないことが毎月のアクティブユーザー数の原因とされていたが、今回のアップデートはその苦情に対処した形だ。 

“Over time, the enthusiasm has waned, but there’s still quite a bit of people playing it,” said Joost van Dreunen, the CEO and founder of SuperData Research in New York. “It raises the question: Was it a fad, a thing we only did one time for one game, or is it going to hold people’s attention longer?”

>「時がたつにつれ、熱狂は薄まってくるが、まだまだやっている人は多い。」とJoostは言う。彼は~のCEOで設立者だ。「こういう問題がある。ポケモンGOは一発屋なのか、あるいはもっと長い間人気が出るか?」

 

The game generated $1 billion in revenue *8 as of January, and Niantic CEO John Hanke insists “Pokemon Go” is no passing fad.

 >1月時点で$1,000,000,000の売り上げを生み出した。Niantic CEOのJohnは、ポケモンGoは消えゆく一発屋ではない、と主張する。

 

The game — whose servers had difficulty handling traffic last summer — will fulfill long-promised additions of sought-after *9 “legendary” Pokemon and the ability for players to battle and trade with each other, he said.

>昨夏、サーバーがトラフィックをさばききれなかったことはあったが、ずっと求められていた伝説のポケモンや、プレーヤーがバトルしたり交換したりする機能の追加といった、ずっと約束されていたことが実現した。

 

“What happened last summer was really kind of strange, where ‘Pokemon Go’ spiraled out of control to this level of cultural awareness that nobody expected, certainly not us,” Hanke said. The “extremely successful” game now has usage “at a more normal level,” he said.

 >「昨夏に起きたことは本当に奇妙だった。ポケモンGOが誰も、もちろん私たちも予測しないほどの文化的な注目を浴びるというレベルまで、もうコントロール不能なほど人気があがったんだから。」とHankeは言う。「極端に売れてしまったゲームが、今では通常のユーザー数に落ち着いたということだ」と彼は言う。

 

The hard-to-replicate game still has an enviable *10 following  in Japan, China, Korea as well as North America, Dreunen said.

>他社が容易にまねすることができないポケモンGoは、まだまだ他社がうらやむようなフォロワー数を誇っている。日本、中国、韓国とともに、北米でも、とDreuennは言う。

 

Since the game’s release, Dreunen said, the $40.6 billion worldwide mobile game industry has become flooded, and investment may shift to mobile games that rely on well-loved characters and provide frequent updates.

>リリース以来、世界規模では$40,600,000,000のモバイルゲーム産業が氾濫し、今後は人気のあるキャラクターに依存し頻繁なアップデートを提供するモバイルゲームに投資が移行していくかもしれない、とDreunenは言う。

 

As spring approaches, there are signs of new life. Milwaukee County has prepared for “Pokemon Go” and future augmented-reality games by requiring game developers to obtain a permit to get players into parks.

>この春に向けて、ポケモンGoや新しいゲームを準備している。その際には開発者がプレーヤーが公園でプレイできるよう許可を得ることが求められている。

In Maine, members of the “Pokemon Go” 207 Facebook group have noticed more screenshots from players taking up the game again.

>あるFacebookグループではプレー中のスクショのアップが増えてきた。

 

Nick Fournier, a 21-year-old media studies student at the University of Southern Maine, said he’s glad the company has finally begun listening to players’ complaints. He described last summer as a phenomenon brought on by the game’s nostalgia and the technology’s novelty that he doesn’t expect to see again.

>ようやく苦情を聞いてくれたとNickは喜んでいる。彼は、昨夏の現象はポケモンの懐かしさと、二度とみられないような目新しいテクノロジーのおかげだと言っている。

 

Erin Morrison, a 23-year-old schoolteacher living in Greene, Maine, said she has kept playing through a dreary winter by driving to places she knew had multiple spots to catch Pokemon.

>Erinはこの冬にはスポットが複数ある場所に車で行ってプレイしていたと言っている。

 

“With the new update, it’s been so awesome,” she said. “I’m seeing so many people coming back out.”

 >新しいアップデートでは最高!またやり始める人が増えている、と彼女は言う。

 

質問はコメントで。

*1:enjoy 享受する

*2:in ~において、~の点で

*3:look for A to do「Aが~するのを探す」

*4:of「~のことを」

*5:renewed interest「新たな興味関心」

*6:setは過去分詞

*7:address「~に対処する」

*8:in ~において、~の点で

*9:←seek after「~を探す」の過去分詞

*10:←envyうらやむ