読者です 読者をやめる 読者になる 読者になる

サクサク受験英語

大学入試の英語を楽しみながら勉強しましょう。リクエスト、質問はコメントでお願いします。(コメントは表示されませんが、管理人には届きます。)

Contents 目次

徐々に増やしていきます!リクエストがあればコメントで。

このサイトの使い方 / コラム

長文センター早稲田新聞TED

文法

 

アンソニー・ゴールドブルーム: 機械に奪われる仕事 — そして残る仕事

長文 TED


TEDは面白いし、受験勉強にもすごく役立ちます。ぜひ活用しましょう。最初に日本語字幕で動画を見て、それから英語を「読み」、最後に英語字幕で見てみましょう。もちろん、慣れたら最初から英語字幕、あるいは字幕なしで見てみてもいいでしょう。英語のスクリプトをここに転記しますので、iPhone辞書やWeblioポップアップ辞書で読んでください。

 

0:11
So this is my niece. Her name is Yahli. She is nine months old. Her mum is a doctor, and her dad is a lawyer. By the time Yahli goes to college, the jobs her parents do are going to look dramatically different.

by the time ...「...ときまでには」

0:26

In 2013, researchers at Oxford University did a study on the future of work. They concluded that almost one in every two jobs have a high risk of being automated by machines. Machine learning is the technology that's responsible for most of this disruption. It's the most powerful branch of artificial intelligence. It allows machines to learn from data and mimic some of the things that humans can do. My company, Kaggle, operates on the cutting edge of machine learning. We bring together hundreds of thousands of experts to solve important problems for industry and academia. This gives us a unique perspective on what machines can do, what they can't do and what jobs they might automate or threaten.

on ...「...についての」

a risk of being automated「自動化される危険」

→前置詞(of, by, in, on, without...)の後に動詞が来るときはdoing(動名詞)。これは受身(be done)がdoingになっているだけ。

responsible for ...「...に責任がある、...の原因になっている」

allow O to do「Oが~することを可能にする」

cutting edge「最先端」

 

1:08

Machine learning started making its way into industry in the early '90s. It started with relatively simple tasks. It started with things like assessing credit risk from loan applications, sorting the mail by reading handwritten characters from zip codes. Over the past few years, we have made dramatic breakthroughs. Machine learning is now capable of far, far more complex tasks. In 2012, Kaggle challenged its community to build an algorithm that could grade high-school essays. The winning algorithms were able to match the grades given by human teachers. Last year, we issued an even more difficult challenge. Can you take images of the eye and diagnose an eye disease called diabetic retinopathy? Again, the winning algorithms were able to match the diagnoses given by human ophthalmologists.

make one's way into「~に進出する」

far more ...「はるかに...」(比較級の強調)

 

1:56

Now, given the right data, machines are going to outperform humans at tasks like this. A teacher might read 10,000 essays over a 40-year career. An ophthalmologist might see 50,000 eyes. A machine can read millions of essays or see millions of eyes within minutes. We have no chance of competing against machines on frequent, high-volume tasks.

out- →動詞の前につけて「より優れて」「より多く」の意味を表す(outnumber, outweigh...)

 

2:19

But there are things we can do that machines can't do. Where machines have made very little progress is in tackling novel situations. They can't handle things they haven't seen many times before. The fundamental limitations of machine learning is that it needs to learn from large volumes of past data. Now, humans don't. We have the ability to connect seemingly disparate threads to solve problems we've never seen before.

in doing「~するという点で、~することにおいて」

2:45

Percy Spencer was a physicist working on radar during World War II, when he noticed the magnetron was melting his chocolate bar. He was able to connect his understanding of electromagnetic radiation with his knowledge of cooking in order to invent — any guesses? — the microwave oven.

 

3:02
Now, this is a particularly remarkable example of creativity. But this sort of cross-pollination happens for each of us in small ways thousands of times per day. Machines cannot compete with us when it comes to tackling novel situations, and this puts a fundamental limit on the human tasks that machines will automate.

when it comes to ...「...の話になると、...に関しては」(動詞が続く場合はto doingになるので注意)

 

3:21
So what does this mean for the future of work? The future state of any single job lies in the answer to a single question: To what extent is that job reducible to frequent, high-volume tasks, and to what extent does it involve tackling novel situations? On frequent, high-volume tasks, machines are getting smarter and smarter. Today they grade essays. They diagnose certain diseases. Over coming years, they're going to conduct our audits, and they're going to read boilerplate from legal contracts. Accountants and lawyers are still needed. They're going to be needed for complex tax structuring, for pathbreaking litigation. But machines will shrink their ranks and make these jobs harder to come by.

to what extent「どの程度まで」→to some extenet「ある程度まで」

over coming years「来るべき年に→数年のうちに」

come by「手に入れる」

 

3:59
Now, as mentioned, machines are not making progress on novel situations. The copy behind a marketing campaign needs to grab consumers' attention. It has to stand out from the crowd. Business strategy means finding gaps in the market, things that nobody else is doing. It will be humans that are creating the copy behind our marketing campaigns, and it will be humans that are developing our business strategy.

copy「宣伝文句」

gap「すき間」

 

4:20
So Yahli, whatever you decide to do, let every day bring you a new challenge. If it does, then you will stay ahead of the machines.

let O do「Oに~させる」

 

4:30
Thank you.

4:31
(Applause)

 

夜中のトイレ、「食事中の塩分に関係」(BBC)

長文 新聞 日英

BBCのサイトは英語記事を日本語に訳したものなので、先に日本語を読んでから英語を読むといいです。日本語記事の下に「この話題についてさらに読む」というリンクがあるので、関連記事をたくさん読むことができます。

Night-time loo trips 'linked to salt in diet'

夜中のトイレ、「食事中の塩分に関係」

 

People who wake at night with an urge to go to the loo may need to cut back on salt in their diets, doctors from Japan are suggesting.

cut back on ...「...を減らす」

The problem - called nocturia - which mainly affects the over-60s, leads to disrupted sleep and can significantly affect people's lives.

lead to 「~につながる」

In a study of more than 300 volunteers, researchers found that reduced salt intake led people to urinate less.

lead O to do「Oが~するよう導く」

Advice to follow a sensible diet could help improve symptoms, UK doctors said.

The researchers, from Nagasaki University, presented their findings at the European Society of Urology congress in London.

They followed patients who had a high salt intake and sleeping problems for three months, after giving them advice to cut back on salt in their diet.

On average, trips to the loo fell from more than twice a night to just one.

on average「平均して」

This happened at night as well as during the day, and their quality of life also improved.

as well as ...「...と同様」

 

 

Feeling the urge

Conversely, 98 people in the study ended up eating more salt than normal and found they went to the loo more often at night-time.

Study author Dr Matsuo Tomohiro said larger studies were needed to confirm the link but the results could offer help for older people.

"This work holds out the possibility that a simply dietary modification might significantly improve the quality of life for many people," he said.

hold out「提供する」

Prof Marcus Drake, a nocturia expert from the University of Bristol, said the amount of salt people ate was not generally considered to be a cause of nocturia.

Usually, doctors tended to focus on the volume of water patients drank before bedtime and on bladder and prostate problems (in men), he said.

"Here we have a useful study showing how we need to consider all influences to get the best chance of improving the symptom."


To pee or not to pee?

Peeing at nightImage copyrightSCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

The need to wake up at night to empty the bladder affects more than half of men and women over the age of 50.

It is particularly common in elderly people, many of whom get up at least twice a night.

at least「少なくとも」

When you start to need to make two or more trips to the bathroom at night, sleep is being disturbed - which can lead to stress, tiredness and irritability.


Is it just a side-effect of getting old?

Hormonal changes do happen as we age, making us produce more urine at night.

as ...「...につれて」

Men's prostate glands also often start growing with age.

An enlarged prostate can press on the tube that urine passes through before leaving the body, increasing the need to pass urine.

But this isn't the whole story.

Nocturia can be a sign of an underlying health problem, such as diabetes, heart problems or sleep-related conditions, such as sleep apnoea.


How much salt is too much?

Salt is in many kinds of foodImage copyrightGETTY IMAGES

Adults in the UK are recommended to eat no more than 6g of salt a day, equal to 2.4g of sodium.

no more than ...「...だけ」

Children should eat less - only 2g of salt for ages one to three, rising to 5g for seven to 10-year-olds.

After age 11, children can have up to 6g.


Which foods are high in salt?

Bread and breakfast cereals can contain more salt than you think.

Bacon, ham, cheese, crisps and pasta sauces are also high in salt.

in ...「...の点で、...において」→rich in ...

When buying food, look at the figure for salt per 100g on the packaging.

High salt content is more than 1.5g salt (0.6g sodium) per 100g. These foods may be colour-coded red.

センター2010第3問C

Vinegar is a very familiar household product, which has long played an extremely important part in cooking all over the world. But what exactly is vinegar and what are its uses besides cooking?

 

in doing「~する際、~する時」

use (n.) 「使用法」

 

[ 1 ]   In Japan, rice is used to make vinegar, which is a necessary ingredient in making some traditional Japanese dishes. In Korea, they use another native crop, persimmons; in the U.S., apples; and in the Philippines, sugar cane. It is clear that there is a variety of vinegars worldwide. 

 

be used to do「~するために使われる」

 ←be used to doing「~することに慣れている」

in doing「~する際、~する時」

 

(1) Local vinegar is an unimportant element in traditional dishes.

(2) People in different places make vinegar out of their local products.

(3) Rice vinegar has been made and used by people for a long time.

(4) The word "vinegar" is from an old French word meaning "sour wine."

 

out of …「…から」

 

Answer→[1]

 

Regarding the process of making vinegar, it is made by allowing air to react with alcohol of some type. This means that the process always begins with a raw material, such as grapes, rice, or barley, that has been converted into alcohol. [ 2 ] The former, allowing it to age naturally, can take weeks or months, or even in an extreme case, as long as 100 years, as in expensive Italian balsamic vinegars. The latter process can take as little as 20 hours. This is made possible by adding air and bacteria to the source liquid.

 

regarding…「…に関して」

by doing「~することによって」

allow O to do「Oが~することを可能にする」

raw material 「生の材料→原材料」

the former「前者」, the latter「後者」

age (v.)「年をとる」

 

(1) It takes an extremely long time to make genuine vinegar.

(2) Many crops and recipes are connected to vinegar.

(3) There have traditionally been several ways to make vinegar.

(4) Vinegar can be produced either by a slow or fast process.

 

Answer→[2]

 

The uses of vinegar are as extensive as its source materials. Before refrigerators became common, vinegar was vitally important in preserving food in the form of pickles. Vinegar has also long been important in cleaning and for medical purposes.  [ 3 ] to polish surfaces and reduce the pain of insect bites. Clearly, vinegar was an important discovery for ancient civilizations which remains useful even today.

 

(1) It could have been used

(2) It has been commonly used

(3) It is rarely used

(4) It will not be used

 

could have done「~したことがありえるだろう」←could do「~することがありえるだろう」

 

Answer→[3]

 

VOCABULARY

n.→noun名詞、v.→verb動詞、adj.→adjective形容詞、adv.→adverb副詞

 

household

extreme (adj.), extremely (adv.) 発音!

exactly

use (n.) 発音!(n.→ユース、v.→ユーズ)

besides

be used to do(ユーズド)、be used to doing(ユースト)

ingredient発音!

crop

sugar cane

a variety of …

out of …

regarding

allow O to do

by doing

raw material

convert O into …

the former, the latter

age (v.)

add O to …

liquid

genuine 発音!

recipe 発音!

extensive

refrigerator アクセント!

vital (adj.), vitally (adv.)

preserve 発音!

purpose

surface アクセント!

reduce

insect アクセント!

bite (n.)

ancient 発音!

remain C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] (2)

[2] (4)

[3] (2)

Vinegar is a very familiar household product, which has long played an extremely important part in cooking all over the world. But what exactly is vinegar and what are its uses besides cooking?

 

[ 32 ]  In Japan, rice is used to make vinegar, which is a necessary ingredient in making some traditional Japanese dishes. In Korea, they use another native crop, persimmons; in the U.S., apples; and in the Philippines, sugar cane. It is clear that there is a variety of vinegars worldwide. 

 

1) Local vinegar is an unimportant element in traditional dishes.

2) People in different places make vinegar out of their local products.

3) Rice vinegar has been made and used by people for a long time.

4) The word "vinegar" is from an old French word meaning "sour wine."

[1]

 

Regarding the process of making vinegar, it is made by allowing air to react with alcohol of some type. This means that the process always begins with a raw material, such as grapes, rice, or barley, that has been converted into alcohol. [ 33 ] The former, allowing it to age naturally, can take weeks or months, or even in an extreme case, as long as 100 years, as in expensive Italian balsamic vinegars. The latter process can take as little as 20 hours. This is made possible by adding air and bacteria to the source liquid.

 

The uses of vinegar are as extensive as its source materials. Before refrigerators became common, vinegar was vitally important in preserving food in the form of pickles. Vinegar has also long been important in cleaning and to polish surfaces and reduce the pain of for medical purposes. [ 34 ] insect bites. Clearly, vinegar was an important discovery for ancient civilizations which remains useful even today.

 

 

[1] [32] (2)

勉強は「おもしろい」!

コラム

ほとんどの人は受験英語の勉強はつまらない、苦痛に満ちたものだと思っています。先生も「血のにじむような努力を!」と言います(私も先生だから言いますけど、本当に血のにじむような努力してきた先生はとっても少ないし、皆さんは英語の先生と違って英語ばかり勉強しているわけにはいかないですよね)。

 

でも、英語は言葉です。確かに最終的には難しい文章を読めるようにならなければいけませんが、まずはたくさん触れること。そしてたくさん触れるためには少しでも「楽しい」ものの方がいいのです。実際大学入試に出される長文は読んでいて面白いものが多いです。脳科学者の茂木健一郎さんも言っていますが、勉強が「楽しく」なってきたらこっちのものです。最初は面倒くさいかもしれませんが、できるだけ早く「楽しい」領域にみなさんが入れるようお手伝いできればと思います。

 

 

センター試験 1990年 大問5

長文 センター

About fifteen hundred years ago the Japanese imported many aspects of Chinese culture: the writing system, political institutions, and perhaps most important, Buddhism. Buddhist priests were expected to eat only vegetables, and tofu, /made from the soybean/, was a very important food in their diet. When Buddhism was introduced from China, tofu was also brought to Japan.

 

   Tofu developed in different ways in China and Japan. While the Chinese often changed the taste of tofu by mixing it with strongly-flavored vegetables or meat, the Japanese preferred to eat it using only a simple sauce *1 . Even now, traditional Japanese cooking preserves the original delicacy of tofu, though the way (it is served) may change from season to season *2. In summer, for example, it is simply served cold, while in winter it is often eaten as part of a hot dish.

 

  The soybean was introduced to the West in the eighteenth century, but little interest was taken in it; only scientists recognized its high food value. During the Second World War, when meat was in short supply, the U. S. government encouraged the American people to eat soybean products *3. However, they never became very popular and, after the war, interest in them dropped off as the supply of meat became plentiful again.

 

   In recent years, people in the West have become increasingly aware of the dangers of eating too much animal fat, and as a result, they have turned more and more to soybean products. This is mainly because the soybean provides almost the same food value as meat, and /in addition/ is a lot more healthful. Much of the margarine, salad oil, and cooking oil in daily use is now produced from soybean oil. Tofu, /a representative soybean product and originally one of the main foods in the diet of Chinese priests/, is considered to be one of the healthiest foods available to man.

 

Tofu came to Japan together with Buddhism, because | 42 |

1) Buddhist priests ate tofu rather than vegetables. *4

2) it was a very important food in the diet of Buddhist priests.

3) the religion came to Japan together with political institutions.

4) the religion was the most important aspect of Chinese culture.

 

Japanese tofu dishes differ from Chinese tofu dishes in that | 43 | ((in that ...「...という点で、...ということにおいて」

1) the original taste of tofu is preserved in Japanese dishes.

2) they are served the same way throughout the year.

3) they have a better taste than Chinese tofu dishes.

4) they have a greater variety than Chinese tofu dishes.

 

During the Second World War the United States government encouraged the American people to eat soybean products because | 44 |

1) Americans recognized their high food value.

2) little interest was taken in the soybean.

3) meat was less available than before.

4) they were found to taste very good.

 

The reason people in the West have become more and more interested in tofu and other soybean products is that | 45 |

1) eating too much animal fat is considered unhealthy.

2) meat has become too expensive to buy.

3) these products are more readily available.

4) they have become tired of eating meat.

*1:by doing 「~することによって」

*2:change from ... to ... 「...によって変わる」

*3:in short supply「供給不足で」

*4:rather than ... 「...よりむしろ」